The subservience of science to technology is the expression of the role of this technology in capitalist economies. It was Marx who first showed how changes in technology - in mankind's relation to nature - brought with them changes in social relations. Feudal society was brought down not by revolutions but by the development of technologies that laid the foundation of manufacturing industry, and a new economy incompatible with the old pattern of social relations. Today, alternative scientific models marginalized by the scientific establishment pose no less a threat to capitalist economies. That is because they bear within them the seed of new technologies that challenge the whole capitalist economic model of supply and demand. The latter is predicated on the idea of inherently limited resources, above all energy - the foundation of industry.

Today, the alternative scientific models applied in so-called New Energy Research offers the very real prospect of mankind one day being able to draw upon unlimited free energy from a Fundamental Field. This primordial 'vacuum' field, far from being an empty or entropic void, is, as physics itself is beginning to recognize, a fullness or pleroma. That it does not manifest as such is due to its essential nature as a field of potential or 'zero-point' energy. John Davidson nicely compares this energy to that of a rope in a balanced tug-of-war competition, explaining that the forces exerted by both teams are by no means zero even though they may indeed sum to zero and not be apparent. He compares the primordial vacuum sheet itself to a tightly stretched piece of paper. What appears to us as energy and matter are vibration waves or ripples on this sheet which can also take the form of apparent particle spin. His reference to tensed or stretched ropes and sheets has a deeper significance in relation to the basic terms of Fundamental Science. The words 'tension', 'extension' and 'intension' all have their root in the Latin tendere - to 'stretch' or 'span' - as do the verbs 'tend' and 'attend', 'extend' and 'intend', tender and tense. The word 'tone' has a similar root in the Greek teinein - also meaning to stretch. It is from a stretched string that musical tones are produced in different intensities. Strange therefore, that the concept of toned intensities as such is not one of the fundamental concepts of modern physics. In contrast, Fundamental Science understands the fundamental reality as something composed of patterned tonal intensities, the latter being the music of the inner universe.

The distance between a source of sound and a listener can be measured, as can a wavelength of tonal vibration, or the distance between two nodes of a stretched string. But the experienced distance between two tones as such is no more measurable than the distance between two colours, the distance between two moods or tones of feeling, or the emotional distance between two human beings. That is why in music it is described as an 'interval' rather than a distance. Fundamental Science understands the space of our resonance with a piece of music as something fundamentally distinct from the extensional physical space in which tones manifest as vibrations of air particles. Furthermore, it understands extensional space itself as an expression of a more primordial type of space - an intensional space in which distances are comparable to tonal distances or musical intervals. The fundamental essence of space - primordial or intensional space - has a temporal character.

Fundamental Space is a patterned field of co-presence composed of different tones separated by intervals and amplitudes or degrees of intensity. Fundamental Time, on the other hand, cannot be tautologically defined as a succession of tonal intensities or patterns in time. Instead time itself is a function of successive tonal intensities and patterns. The deepest expression of this truth is found in music. A melody is not a succession 'in' time of notes or tones of longer or shorter duration, and of lesser or greater volume or intensity. The melody itself is a tonal shaping of time. Fundamental Time is a succession of different tonal qualities and intensities of awareness, whether experienced through music or through the successions of moods or field-states of awareness that constitute our everyday life. A tone does not persist 'in' time. Time itself is a function of patterned tonal durations and intensities of awareness - weakening patterns and intensities being experienced as 'past' events receding like the sounds of a passing car, and increasing intensities being experienced as events nearing our present like the sound of an approaching car.

The fundamental concept of intensities is given recognition in New Energy Research through the importance it attaches to 'scalar' values, defined only by magnitude or intensity and not by directions or vectors. From the point of view of scalar electromagnetic theory, two or more electromagnetic fields may sum to zero but conceal zero-point energy - potential energy in the form of scalar potentials hidden within apparently entropic ground-states in which no measurable field effects or field-patterns manifest. We might compare these hidden energy potentials in the vacuum field of 'empty' space with silences in music; silences that are not empty or vacuous but pregnant, audible not as physical sounds but as inner sounds - as resonant tones of silence. As any appreciator of the symphonies of Anton Bruckner knows, these tones of silence can be rich and more loaded in power and intensity than the grandest of climactic chords that emerge from them.

The terms 'power', 'potency' and 'potentiality' all share a common root. We think of energy as a source of power, something which has the potential to do 'work' - to push bodies or charges around. In doing so however, we reinforce another Fundamental Misconception. For power, properly understood, is potentiality. Conversely, potentiality is power - whether this power be experienced as potentialities latent within oneself, made visible in the vastness of the cosmos, whether it be understood as the creative potentialities of awareness as such or the creative power of a hidden God. And energy, properly understood, is not a source of power but a fundamental expression of potentiality, the formative and transformative activity that translates potential into actual intensities. Thus the very term 'potential energy' is something of an oxymoron. Here again, it is through questioning scientific language itself that we come to the hub of the matter - in this case the relation between Fundamental Science and the 'New Science' of 'free energy'.

One way of visualizing the relationship between power and energy, intensional and extensional fields, is as a Fundamental Wave of 'scalar' intensities, potential and actual. In the diagrammatic representation of this wave, the coordinate axes are not spatio-temporal and do not plot movements or 'vectors' in space-time. The base line represents the vacuum field of zero-point energy or 'anergy'. The half-cycles above the line represent magnitudes of actual intensities of 'energy', manifest within extensional fields. The half-cycles below the line, on the other hand, represent amplitudes of 'inergy' understood as magnitudes or intensities of potentiality - as power. The Fundamental Wave is thus a representation of 'energy' in all its dimensions - as inergy or potentiality, as anergy or zero-point energy, and as actual, physical energy. In doing so it hints at the fundamental essence of energy as such - understood as the self-actualization of a field of formative potentials and with it, the emergence (phusis) of intensities of potentiality as actual 'scalar' intensities.

Diagram 1

PO: maximum potential intensity
EM: event of emergence (potentiality to actuality)
AC: maximum actual intensity
DE: event of demergence (actuality to potentiality)

The node marked DE in the wave diagram represents the very opposite of phusis as emergence from potentiality to actuality and from intensional to extensional reality. I call this 'demergence'. I define a basic 'zero-point' electromagnetic energy unit as a bipolar boundary state of emergence and demergence, energy and inergy, actuality and potentiality, extensional and intensional reality, pulsating between the two poles of actuality (+) and potentiality (-). The actual electromagnetic charge, polarities and full-cycle wave patterns which define physical energy can be visualized as occurring in a polarized plane at right angles to the plane of the Fundamental Wave, just as full-cycle waves of potential intensities or 'inergy' belong to a third dimension of polarization that is the underside or intensional dimension of this polarized plane. Electrical, magnetic and spin polarities can all be conceived as polarizations of the Fundamental Wave. For there is no polarity more fundamental than that of potentiality and actuality, just as there is no type of resonance more fundamental than the resonance of actual and potential field-patterns and field-intensities.

Diagram 2 represents a further significant aspect of the Fundamental Wave. For it shows how (a) an event of demergence - the decay of an actual intensity is the birth of a new potential intensity, and (b) can at the same time be an event of emergence from a higher inergetic amplitude and longer wavelength of potential intensity (see diagram below).

Diagram 2

Fundamental Wave Harmonics are characterized not simply by a progressive manifestation of higher magnitude and longer wavelength potential intensities in the very process of decay of lower amplitude and shorter wavelength actual intensities. Or in conventional terms - the release or actualization of 'potential energy' in and through its conversion into actual or 'kinetic energy'.

'Potential difference' (German Spannung) is esssentially a tension spanning potentiality and actuality. This tension is represented in the wave diagram as the intensity distance or interval separating the nodes of maximum potential and actual intensity. It has not only a scientific significance but an ethical one - the difference between what is and what could be that constitutes what we call con-science or 'conscience'. The Fundamental Wave teaches us however, that the actualization of high intensity inner potentials is facilitated by their expression in lower intensity acts. That doing less or little can indeed result in much more than we might expect.

The diagram below represents the Fundamental Wave as a dual wave in which any point of maximum intensity actualization of an event A has as its complementary counterpart an anti-node of maximum potential intensity for an event B that is yet to manifest. This diagram has the advantage of showing how time as a linear sequence of events of emergence is itself a function of a basic tension or difference between an actual intensity A and its counterpart magnitude of potential intensity P, the latter not being a single potential event such as B but a field of alternate potential events (P1, P2, P3 etc) of which the actual event B is one expression.

Diagram 3

Any actualized event A, in the very act of giving determinate form to an otherwise indeterminate field of potentiality, implies the possibility of other determinate events such as A1, A2, A3 etc. As a result, it does not subtract from but adds to the number of determinate potentials within the field, previously represented only by P1, P2, P3 etc. Diagram 4 represents these new potential events both as a field of alternative or 'virtual' events around A and as an enlarged field of potential events which comes into being through the decay or demergence of event A.

Diagram 4

One of the most fundamental misconceptions of conventional physics is the identification of entropy with disorder or lack of form. High entropy, in physical-scientific terms is understood as a state of maximum energetic equilibrium, associated with a state of minimum thermal and kinetic energy (the second law of thermodynamics). But as Rupert Sheldrake has argued so coherently, if entropy implies disorder, why is it that a salt solution crystallizes when placed in a cool environment? The evening out of the temperature of the system as the solution cools and loses its temperature differential with its environment constitutes an increase in entropy but goes together with the increase in order or formal complexity constituted by crystallization. Similarly, as high energy plasma cools, the electrons and atomic nuclei that compose it come together to form first gaseous atoms, then molecules, then fluids and finally solid crystalline structures and 'supermolecules'.

In physics, stability is associated with states of minimum potential energy - a ball poised on the top of a mound for example, having higher potential energy than one that has rolled to the ground but lesser stability. The electron shells surrounding atoms have different quantum energy levels, the outermost ones with the highest levels exhibiting the least stability. But quantum physics has no way of predicting the form of complex molecular structures on this basis. That is because, as structural complexity increases so do the number of different possible structural forms sharing the same level of energy and stability.

Following Waddington, Sheldrake pictures these different possible forms as landscapes - rather like three dimensional mountain ranges down which water flows, or mounds of different heights and shapes down which a ball can roll into canals between them. The important thing is that the mountains or mounds can descend into valleys or canals at the same height, allowing water to flow into more than one river or stream, or a ball to roll along more than one canal with the same energy. Any canal between two mounds can branch out into others at the same height, into either of which the ball can roll and come to rest.

It is a well-known fact that when a magnetized bar of iron is heated above a certain temperature, it loses its magnetic properties and polarity due to the randomization of atomic movements and spins. What is less well known is that when it cools below this temperature, it polarizes magnetically but does so in an unpredictable way - each end of the bar becoming either a magnetic north pole or a south pole. This is an example of two potential field-patterns of emergence existing below a certain ground state represented by a particular scalar value (in this case the 'Curie temperature') and comparable to two canals or valleys in a 'morphogenetic' landscape.

We have here a clear example of the fundamental nature of entropy, a word which derives from the Greek 'trope', meaning a change or turning point. The term 'entropy' was coined to signify a state in which there is little potential for change. The higher the entropy, the less potential energy and the less potential for change. Understood in a more fundamental sense however, entropy is en-tropy or extra 'tropy'. It is an increase in formative potential and thus an increase in 'potential energy' in the fundamental sense of energein - formative activity. Because of the conventional identification of entropy with lack of form and low potential energy I coin the term 'intropy' to describe this complementary dimension of entropy as 'extra tropy' - a turning point with many possible outcomes.

Entropy is a decrease of potential energy. Intropy is the increase of potential energy as 'inergy' or formative potential. Entropy reduces the degree of patterned differentiation of intensities within an energetic field. Intropy increases the intensity of different potential field-patterns that can emerge into actualization. A ground state of minimum potential energy and maximum entropy is at the same time a state of maximum intropy - a maximum intensity of inergetic or formative potential.

The relation between entropy and intropy can be represented by repicturing the Fundamental Wave as two waves whose anti-nodes meet at the ground state of zero-point energy or 'anergy'. Here, states of maximum entropy represented by the low-points or valleys of the upper gradient of potential energy meet with states of maximum intropy represented by the peaks of lower gradient - that gradient of inergetic or formative potential (Diagram5).

Diagram 5

An event of emergence is a nodal point on a wave, a meeting point of en-tropic and in-tropic gradients and thus a trope or turning point in the deepest sense..

Why is it that human beings so often experience turning points precisely at 'low points' or 'ground states' of awareness whether by reaching the the depths of depression or by completing a process of 'winding down' and thus reaching a state of maximum 'entropy'. Why is it that the deeper a energetic 'low' or 'depression' is, the more profound the energetic transformations or life insights it can lead to? Why is it that a transformative insight should bring with it a felt surge of potential energy seeking expression in action? All these questions are answered by a new and fundamental understanding of high entropic states as turning points - transition states of emergence of new formative potentials at maximum 'intropy'. Here, we are not 'anthropomorphizing' nature. We are also gaining a deeper insight into nature through our own inner nature.

The essence of Fundamental Research is the deepening our understanding of nature through a direct awareness of the way its fundamental dynamics manifest in awareness of our own nature. That is why any Fundamental Physics is at the same time a Fundamental Psychology and vice versa. Understanding human psychology in terms of entropy and intropy yields insights in direct contrast to the pre-conceptions of current psychology, pyschiatry, and psychotherapy. The latter all see the process of entering low energy states or sinking into valleys of 'depression' as negative processes and/or a product of 'negative thinking'. From the perspective of field-phenomenological psychology it may be that what is diagnosed psychiatrically as symptoms of 'depression' - chronic or repeated states of low energy and drive, loss of meaning and motivation etc. may be states that result from blocking the natural depressie process - itself a natural entropic process that is part of a natural rhythm or wave - the entropic/intropic cycle,

Physics now recognizes that there may be no single or ultimate 'ground level' - the ground state of minimum or 'zero-point' energy associated with a vacuum field, comparable to the lowest level valley or plain which a ball can roll down into. From this point of view there is not one universal vacuum field or energetic ground state but many, each of which corresponds to different potential states of the universe as a whole, different patterns of unfoldment and expansion of the universe, and ultimately different universes. It is possible for human beings too, to descend to ever deeper levels of awareness and draw knowledge, to reach down to new and deeper ground states or source fields of awareness. It is in this way that Fundamental Scientists obtain profound insights not only into the mysteries of their own nature but into the mysteries of nature itself as it manifests within them. This deepening awareness brings with it a deeper, more direct cognition of the meaning of basic scientific concepts, and a direct experience of the source of those concepts. For the latter are not simply abstractions from empirical data or the products of theoretical speculation but have their source in the psyche of the scientist, reflecting the field-depths of awareness they are - or are not - capable of attaining within it.